Peter could recognize the transcendent character of the Messiah's divine sonship because Jesus had clearly allowed it to be so understood. To his accusers' question before the Sanhedrin, "Are you the Son of God, then?" Jesus answered, "You say that I am."(Lk 22:70; cf. Mt 26:64; Mk 14:61-62)
Well before this, Jesus referred to himself as "the Son" who knows the Father, as distinct from the "servants" God had earlier sent to his people; he is superior even to the angels.(cf. Mt 11:27; Mt 21:34-38; Mt 24:36)
He distinguished his sonship from that of his disciples by never saying "our Father", except to command them: "You, then, pray like this: 'Our Father'", and he emphasized this distinction, saying "my Father and your Father".(Mt 5:48; Mt 6:8-9; Mt 7:21; Lk 11:13; Jn 20:17)
Jesus does not reveal the Holy Spirit fully, until he himself has been glorified through his Death and Resurrection. Nevertheless, little by little he alludes to him even in his teaching of the multitudes, as when he reveals that his own flesh will be food for the life of the world.(cf. Jn 6:27, Jn 6:51, Jn 6:62-63)
He also alludes to the Spirit in speaking to Nicodemus,(cf. Jn 3:5-8)
to the Samaritan woman,(cf. Jn 4:10, Jn 4:14, Jn 4:23-24)
and to those who take part in the feast of Tabernacles.(cf. Jn 7:37-39)
To his disciples he speaks openly of the Spirit in connection with prayer(cf. Lk 11:13)
and with the witness they will have to bear.(cf. Mt 10:19-20)
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The traditional form of petition to the Holy Spirit is to invoke the Father through Christ our Lord to give us the Consoler Spirit.(cf. Lk 11:13)
Jesus insists on this petition to be made in his name at the very moment when he promises the gift of the Spirit of Truth.(cf. Jn 14:17; Jn 15:26; Jn 16:13)
But the simplest and most direct prayer is also traditional, "Come, Holy Spirit," and every liturgical tradition has developed it in antiphons and hymns.
Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful and enkindle in them the fire of your love.(Roman Missal, Pentecost Sequence)
Heavenly King, Consoler Spirit, Spirit of Truth, present everywhere and filling all things, treasure of all good and source of all life, come dwell in us, cleanse and save us, you who are All Good.(Byzantine Liturgy, Pentecost Vespers, Troparion)